PROFIL FAKTOR KEPRIBADIAN MALADAPTIF PADA DEWASA AWAL: STUDI DESKRIPTIF

Ray Caesarly Santosa, Rismiyati E. Koesma, Zamralita Zamralita
| Abstract views: 82 | views: 45

Abstract

Personality disorder is an incapacitating mental illness that leads the individual to some negative consequences, often deadly. However, to date, no studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in Indonesia.  This could happen due to the fact that personality disorders often co-morbid with other mental disorders making them difficult to detect. According to Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD), personality disorders can be diagnosed by the presence of maladaptive personality factors in oneself. There are five maladaptive personality factors according to the model: Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Disinhibition, Antagonism, and Psychoticism. Therefore, this study aims to get an overview of the maladaptive personality factors and describe the maladaptive personality characteristics in order to detect the symptoms of personality disorders in community sample. Through survey and descriptive analysis of 608 emerging adults (M age= 19.66 y.o, SD = 1.895), the study found that 1.2% are classified in High Personality Dysfunction category and 38.8% of the participants are classified in Low Personality Dysfunction category. The results showed that Negative Affectivity factor has the highest score for each group of the participants. In addition, the study also found the largest characteristic difference between groups of participants lies in the Psychoticism and Detachment factors. The study concludes by providing some avenues for further research and suggestions for mental health practitioners, and society in general. 

 

Gangguan kepribadian adalah gangguan mental serius dan dapat menyebabkan beberapa konsekuensi negatif pada penderitanya, termasuk kematian. Namun, hingga saat ini belum ditemukan studi mengenai prevalensi gangguan kepribadian di Indonesia. Hal tersebut dapat terjadi karena gangguan kepribadian seringkali bersanding dengan gangguan mental lain sehingga sulit terdeteksi. Menurut model alternatif untuk gangguan kepribadian (AMPD), gangguan kepribadian dapat dideteksi dengan keberadaan faktor kepribadian maladaptif dalam diri seseorang. Berdasarkan pendekatan AMPD, terdapat lima faktor kepribadian maladaptif, yaitu Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Disinhibiton, Antagonism, dan Psychoticism. Maka dari itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran atau profil kelima faktor kepribadian maladaptif guna memindai gejala gangguan kepribadian pada sampel dan gambaran karakteristik masyarakat secara umum. Melalui survei dan analisis deskriptif terhadap 608 orang dewasa awal (Musia = 19.66 tahun, SD = 1.895), ditemukan partisipan dengan tingkat disfungsi kepribadian tinggi sebesar 1.2% dan partisipan dengan tingkat disfungsi kepribadian rendah sebesar 38.8%. Hasil juga menunjukkan bahwa faktor negative affectivity adalah faktor yang paling besar dimiliki oleh tiap-tiap kelompok partisipan. Selain itu, perbedaan karakteristik paling besar antar kelompok partisipan terletak pada faktor psychoticism dan detachment. Studi disimpulkan dengan memberikan beberapa usulan untuk penelitian lebih lanjut, psikoterapis, dan masyarakat secara umum. 

Keywords

personality disorder; maladaptive personality trait; emerging adulthood; descriptive study; Gangguan Kepribadian; Faktor Kepribadian Maladaptif; Dewasa Awal; Studi Deskriptif

Full Text:

PDF

References

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Anderson, J. L., Sellbom, M., & Salekin, R. T. (2018). Utility of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5–Brief Form (PID-5-BF) in the measurement of maladaptive personality and psychopathology. Assessment, 25(5), 596-607. Diakses dari https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191116676889

Anna, L. K. (2012, Februari 11). Gangguan jiwa masih diabaikan. Diakses dari https://lifestyle.kompas.com/read/2012/02/11/07363466/Gangguan.Jiwa.Masih.Diabaikan?page=2

Bach, B., Maples-Keller, J. L., Bo, S., & Simonsen, E. (2016). The alternative DSM–5 personality disorder traits criterion: A comparative examination of three self-report forms in a Danish population. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 7(2), 124-135. Diakses dari https://doi.org/10.1037/per0000162

Bastiaens, T., Claes, L., Smits, D., De Clercq, B., De Fruyt, F., Rossi, G., ... & De Hert, M. (2016). The construct validity of the Dutch Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Personality Disorders (PID-5) in a clinical sample. Assessment, 23(1), 42-51. Diakses dari https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191115575069

Fossati, A., Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Borroni, S., Maffei, C., & Somma, A. (2015). The DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders from the perspective of adult attachment: a study in community-dwelling adults. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 203(4), 252-258. Diakses dari doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000274

Granieri, A., La Marca, L., Mannino, G., Giunta, S., Guglielmucci, F., & Schimmenti, A. (2017). The relationship between defense patterns and DSM-5 maladaptive personality domains. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1926. Diakses dari https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01926

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (Kemenkes). (2013). Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013. Jakarta: Kemenkes.

Keyes, C. L. M., Sohail, M. M., Molokwu, N. J., Parnell, H., Amanya, C., Kaza, V. G. K., … Proeschold-Bell, R. J. (2020). How Would You Describe a Mentally Healthy Person? A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Study of Caregivers of Orphans and Separated Children. Journal of Happiness Studies. Diakses dari doi:10.1007/s10902-020-00293-x

Krueger, R. F., Derringer, J., Markon, K. E., Watson, D., & Skodol, A. E. (2012). Initial construction of a maladaptive personality trait model and inventory for DSM−5. Psychol. Med. 42, 1879–1890. Diakses dari doi: 10.1017/S0033291711002674

Krueger, R. F., Eaton, N. R., Clark, L. E., Watson, D., Markon, K. E., Derringer, J., . . . Livesley, W. J. (2011). Deriving an empirical structure of personality pathology for DSM-5. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25, 170-191. Diakses dari https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2011.25.2.170

Lenzenweger, M. F., Lane, M. C., Loranger, A. W., & Kessler, R. C. (2007). DSM-IV personality disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological psychiatry, 62(6), 553-564. Diakses dari https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.09.019

Liebke, L., Bungert, M., Thome, J., Hauschild, S., Gescher, D. M., Schmahl, C., ... & Lis, S. (2017). Loneliness, social networks, and social functioning in borderline personality disorder. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 8(4), 349. Diakses dari https://doi.org/10.1037/per0000208

Moran, P., Romaniuk, H., Coffey, C., Chanen, A., Degenhardt, L., Borschmann, R., & Patton, G. C. (2016). The influence of personality disorder on the future mental health and social adjustment of young adults: a population-based, longitudinal cohort study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(7), 636-645. Diakses dari https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30029-3

Morey, L. C., Benson, K. T., & Skodol, A. E. (2016). Relating DSM-5 section III personality traits to section II personality disorder diagnoses. Psychological Medicine, 46(3), 647-655. Diakses dari doi:10.1017/S0033291715002226

Quirk, S. E., Berk, M., Chanen, A. M., Koivumaa-Honkanen, H., Brennan-Olsen, S. L., Pasco, J. A., & Williams, L. J. (2016). Population prevalence of personality disorder and associations with physical health comorbidities and health care service utilization: A review. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 7(2), 136. Diakses dari

https://doi.org/10.1037/per0000148

Reichborn-Kjennerud, T., Krueger, R. F., Ystrom, E., Torvik, F. A., Rosenström, T. H., Aggen, S. H., ... & Czajkowski, N. O. (2017). Do DSM-5 Section II personality disorders and Section III personality trait domains reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors?. Psychological medicine, 47(12), 2205-2215. Diakses dari doi:10.1017/S0033291717000824

Volkert, J., Gablonski, T. C., & Rabung, S. (2018). Prevalence of personality disorders in the general adult population in Western countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 213(6), 709-715.

Wingenfeld, K., Duesenberg, M., Fleischer, J., Roepke, S., Dziobek, I., Otte, C., & Wolf, O. T. (2018). Psychosocial stress differentially affects emotional empathy in women with borderline personality disorder and healthy controls. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 137(3), 206-215. Diakses dari https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.12856

Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Muara Ilmu Sosial, Humaniora, dan Seni
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.