PENERAPAN PROGRAM THE GOOD BEHAVIOR GAMES (GBG) UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PERILAKU PROSOSIAL PADA BYSTANDER

Yunike Putri, Sri Tiatri, Pamela Hendra Heng
| Abstract views: 143 | views: 177

Abstract

Bullying is not only affects victims of bullying, but it can also affect students who witness bullying (bystander). The role of the bystander becomes very important because as someone who often witnesses the bullying, they can prevent the incident. A bystander who is often passive in stopping bullying has been found to have a low quality prosocial behavior. In doing prosocial behavior, one of very important thing to do is to give reinforcement to children. In the Good Behavior Games (GBG) program, students in groups will be given instructions in a game to do various prosocial behavior. Students will be given reinforcement, which is the compilation of rewards if they can show the expected behavior. The purpose of this research is to examine whether the implementation of the Good Behavior Games (GBG) program can increase prosocial behavior of bystander in 6th grade students. This study used an experimental design of one group pre-test post-test involving 27 participants who were identified as bystanders. The sampling technique in this study used purposive sampling. Measurements in this study used a Prosocial Behavior measurement tool developed by Knafo Noam et al. The GBG implementation was carried out in 22 sessions. The results showed that the Good Behavior Games intervention program was able to increase prosocial behavior of bystanders.

 

Kejadian bullying tidak hanya mempengaruhi korban bullying, tetapi hal tersebut juga dapat memengaruhi siswa-siswa yang menyaksikan kejadian bullying (bystander). Peran bystander menjadi sangat penting, karena sebagai seseorang yang seringkali menyaksikan bullying, mereka dapat mencegah kejadian tersebut. Seorang bystander yang seringkali bersikap pasif dalam menghentikan bullying ditemukan memiliki kualitas perilaku prososial yang rendah. Dalam mengajarkan perilaku prososial, salah satu hal yang sangat penting untuk dilakukan yaitu dengan memberikan reinforcement atau penguatan pada anak. Dalam program the Good Behavior Games (GBG) para siswa dalam kelompok diberikan instruksi untuk melakukan berbagai perilaku prososial dalam suatu permainan. Siswa diberi reinforcement, yaitu berupa reward ketika berhasil menunjukkan perilaku yang diharapkan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji apakah penerapan program the Good Behavior Games (GBG) dapat meningkatkan perilaku prososial pada bystander pada siswa kelas 6 SD. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain eksperimen one group pre-test post-test dengan melibatkan 27 partisipan yang teridentifikasi sebagai seorang bystander. Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini menggunakan purposive sampling. Pengukuran dalam penelitian ini menggunakan alat ukur Perilaku Prososial yang dikembangkan oleh Knafo Noam dkk. Pelaksanaan the GBG dilaksanakan sebanyak 22 sesi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pemberian intervensi program the Good Behavior Games dapat meningkatkan perilaku prososial pada bystander.

Keywords

perilaku prososial; bystander; the Good Behavior Games; prosocial behavior

Full Text:

PDF

References

Biglan, A., Flay, B. R., Embry, D. D., & Sandler, I. N. (2012). The critical role of nurturing environments for promoting human well-being. American Psychologist, 67(4), 257–271. doi:10.1037/a0026796

Bowman-Perrott, L., Burke, M. D., Zaini, S., Zhang, N., & Vannest, K. (2016). Promoting positive behavior using the good behavior game. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(3), 180– 190.doi:10.1177/1098300715592355

Donaldson, J. M., Vollmer, T. R., Krous, T., Downs, S., & Berard, K. P. (2011). An evaluation of the good behavior game in kindergarten classrooms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(3), 605–609.doi:10.1901/jaba.2011.44-605

Gini, G., Albiero, P., Benelli, B., & Altoè, G. (2008). Determinants of adolescents’ active defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. Journal of Adolescence, 31(1), 93–105.doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.05.002

Hogg & Vaughan. 2011. Social psychology (6th ed). London: Prentice Hall.

Howard, A. M., Landau, S., & Pryor, J. B. (2013). Peer bystanders to bullying: Who wants to play with the victim?. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(2), 265–276.doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9770-8

Huitsing, G., Snijders, T. A. B., Van Duijn, M. A. J., & Veenstra, R. (2014). Victims, bullies, and their defenders: A longitudinal study of the coevolution of positive and negative networks. Development and Psychopathology, 26(03), 645– 659. doi:10.1017/s0954579414000297

Midgett, A., Doumas, D. M., Trull, R., & Johnson, J. (2017). Training students who occasionally bully to be peer advocates: Is a bystander intervention effective in reducing bullying behavior?. Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling, 3(1), 1–13. doi:10.1080/23727810.2016.1277116

Pozzoli, T., Gini, G., & Vieno, A. (2012). Individual and class moral disengagement in bullying among elementary school children. Aggressive Behavior, 38(5), 378–388. doi:10.1002/ab.21442

Ramaswamy, V., & Bergin, C. (2009). Do reinforcement and induction increase prosocial behavior? Results of a teacher-based intervention in preschools. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 23(4), 527–538.

doi:10.1080/02568540909594679

Raskauskas, J. L., Gregory, J., Harvey, S. T., Rifshana, F., & Evans, I. M. (2010). Bullying among primary school children in New Zealand: Relationships with prosocial behaviour and classroom climate. Educational Research, 52(1), 1–13. doi:10.1080/00131881003588097

Rubow, C. C., Vollmer, T. R., & Joslyn, P. R. (2018). Effects of the good behavior game on student and teacher behavior in an alternative school. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 51(2), 382–392. doi:10.1002/jaba.455

Ruiz-Olivares, R., Pino, M. J., & Herruzo, J. (2010). Reduction of disruptive behaviors using an intervention based on the good behavior game and the say-do report correspondence. Psychology in the Schools, 47(10), 1046– 1058. doi:10.1002/pits.20523

Santrock, J. W. (2015). Educational Psychology 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill

Schacter, H. L., & Juvonen, J. (2018). You’ve got a friend (ly school): Can school prosocial norms

Song, J., & Oh, I. (2017). Investigation of the bystander effect in school bullying: Comparison of experiential, psychological and situational factors. School Psychology International, 38(3), 319–336. doi:10.1177/0143034317699997

Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969-2002. Behavior Modification, 30(2), 225–253.doi:10.1177/0145445503261165

Trach, J., Hymel, S., Waterhouse, T., & Neale, K. (2010). Bystander responses to school bullying: A cross-sectional investigation of grade and sex differences. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25(1), 114–130.doi:10.1177/0829573509357553

Widiastuti, Rina. (2018, Juli 23). Hari Anak Nasional, KPAI Catat Kasus Bullying Paling Banyak. TEMPO.CO. Diakses dari: https://nasional.tempo.co/read/1109584/hari-anak-nasional-kpai-catat-kasus-bullying-paling-banyak

Wijayanti, Diah. (2018). Good Behavior Game Untuk Mengurangi Perilaku Disruptif Pada Siswa Sekolah Dasar. University of Muhammadiyah Malang. http://eprints.umm.ac.id/id/eprint/38341

Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Muara Ilmu Sosial, Humaniora, dan Seni
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.