PENGARUH TERAPI MUSIK TERHADAP PENURUNAN PERILAKU AGRESI PADA REMAJA

Yosephine Yosephine, Monty P. Satiadarma, Yohana Theresia
| Abstract views: 163 | views: 111

Abstract

Buss (dalam Baron & Richardson, 2004) mengatakan bahwa perilaku agresi merupakan sebuah tindakan yang bertujuan untuk menyakiti orang lain. Perilaku agresi paling tinggi berada pada masa perkembangan remaja, khususnya pada usia 14 sampai dengan 18 tahun (Farrel et al., 2005; Karriker-Jaffe, Foshee, Ennett, & Suchindran, 2009). Terapi musik merupakan proses penyembuhan yang menggunakan media musik untuk memenuhi kebutuhan fisik, emosional, kognitif, dan sosial pada individu di segala umur (AMTA, 2005). Terapi musik diprediksi dapat menurunkan perilaku agresi pada remaja, terbukti dari berbagai penelitian terdahulu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh terapi musik terhadap penurunan perilaku agresi pada remaja di Jakarta. Pada penelitian ini, peneliti menyertakan 30 siswa di SMA X, Jakarta dengan menggunakan teknik purposive-criterion sampling dan quota sampling. Partisipan dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok, yaitu (a) kelompok terapi musik aktif, (b) kelompok terapi musik pasif, dan (c) kelompok kontrol. Desain penelitian adalah true experiment dengan three-group pretest-posttest, yang menganalisis data dengan Uji ANOVA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terapi musik dapat menurunkan perilaku agresi secara signifikan (p<0.05). Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa baik terapi musik aktif maupun terapi musik pasif dapat diterapkan untuk menurunkan perilaku agresi pada remaja.

 

Buss (in Baron & Richardson, 2004) says that aggressive behavior is an action that aims to hurt others. The highest aggression behavior is occur when the adolescence developed itself time to time, especially at ages 14 to 18 years (Farrel et al., 2005; Karriker-Jaffe, Foshee, Ennett, & Suchindram, 2009). Music therapy  is a healing process that uses music media to meet physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs in individuals of all ages (AMTA, 2005). Music therapy is predicted can be reduce aggressive behavior in adolescence, as evidenced by various previous studies. The purpose of this research is to determine the result of the decreasing aggressive behavior toward the adolescence in Jakarta. In this study, researchers included 30 students at SMA X, Jakarta using purposive-ciretrion sampling and quota sampling techniques. Participants were divided into 3 groups, and the groups are; (a) active music therapy group, (b) passive music therapy group, and (c) control group. The design of this experiment is using a true experiment with three-group pretest-posttest, which analyzes data with ANOVA test. The results showed that music therapy can significantly reduce aggressive behavior (p <0.05). This shows that both active music therapy and passive music therapy can be applied to reduce aggressive behavior in adolescence.

 

Keywords

musik; terapi musik; agresi; remaja; music; therapy music; aggressive behavior; adolescence

Full Text:

PDF

References

Achenbach, T. M. (1991a). Manual for the youth self-report and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.

Alavinezhad, R, Mousavi, M., & Sohrabi, N. (2014). Effect of art therapy on anger and self-esteem in aggressive children. Elvesier, 113, 111-117, www.sciencedirect.com

American Music Therapy Association. (2005). Definition of music therapy. musictherapy.org

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2016). Statistik Indonesia. bps.go.id

Baron, R. A. & Richardson, D. R. (2004). Human aggression. New York: Plenum Press.

Baumeister, R. F., Bushman, B. J., & Campbell, W. K. (2000). Self-esteem, narcissism, and aggression: Does violence result from low self-esteem or from threatened egotism? Current Directions in Psychological Bulletin, 9, 26-29.

Buser, T., Flannery, B., Bentley, P., & Gladding, S. (2005). The impact of musical lyrics on the lives of graduate counseling students. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 1(2), 81–92. doi:10.1300/J456v01n02_08

Bushman, B. J. & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Is it time to pull the plug on the hostile versus instrumental aggrssion dichotomy? Psychological Review, 108, 273-279.

Chen, C., Li, C., Wang, H., Ou, J, Zhou, J., & Wang, X. (2014). Cognitive behavioural therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in chinese young male violent offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 40, 329-336. pdfs.semanticscholar.org

Choi, A., Lee, M., & Lee, J. (2010). Group music intervention reduces aggression and improves self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior: A pilot controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine (Ecam), 7(2), 213-217. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nem182

Collins, O. F. (2016). Assessing reactive and proactive aggression in detained adolescents outside of a research context. Children Psychiatry Human Development, 47, 159-172. Doi: 10.1007/s10578-015-0553-z

Davis, W. B., Gfeller, K. E., & Thaut, M H. (1999). An introduction to music therapy: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). USA: McGraw-Hill.

Dobryńska, E., Cesarz, H., Rymaszewska, J., & Kiejna, A. (2006). Music therapy: History, definitions and application. Archives of Psychoatry and Psychotherapy, 8(1), 47-52. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282647747

Ebneshahidi, A. & Mohseni, M. (2008). The effect of patient-selected music on early postoperative pain, anxiety, and hemodynamic profile in cesarean section surgery. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 14(7), 827-831. Doi: 10.1089/acm.2007.0752

Euler, F., Steinlin, C., & Stadler, C. (2017). Distinct profiles of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescents: Associations with cognitive and affective empathy. Children Adolescent Psychiatry Mental Health, 11(1), 1-14

Farrel, A. D., Sullivan, T. N., Esposito, L. E., Meyer, A. L., & Valois, R. F. (2005). A latent growth curva analysis of the structure of aggression, drug use, and delinquent behaviors and their interrelations over time in urban and rural adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15(2), 179-177. Doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2005.00091.x

Gao, Y., Tuvblad, C., Schell, A., Baker, L., & Raine, A. (2015). Skin conductance fear conditioning impairements and aggression: A longitudinal study. Psychophysiology, 52(2), 288-295

Gholami, A., Bshlideh, K., & Rafiei, A. (2013). The impact of two methods of music therapy and relaxation on the aggression in high school students. Journal Of Jahrom University Of Medical Sciences, 11(2), 7-12.

Gladding, S. T., Newsome, D., Binkley, E., & Henderson, D. (2008). The lyrics of hurting and healing: Finding words that are revealing. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 3(3), 212–219. doi:10.1080/15401380802385210

Hendricks, C. B., & Bradley, L. J. (2005). Interpersonal theory and music techniques: A case study for a family with a depressed adolescent. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 13, 400–405. doi:10.1177/ 1066480705278469

Karriker, K. J., Foshee, V. A., Ennett, S. T., & Suchindran, C. (2009). The development of aggression during adolescence: Sex differences in trajectories of physical and social aggression amoung youth in rural areas. Journal of abnormal Child Psychology, 36(8), 1227-1236. Doi: 10.1007/s10802-008-9245-5

Ma’ruf, H. (2015). Perilaku agresi relasi siswa di sekolah. Yogyakarta: Aswaja Pressindo.

Montello, L., & Coons, E. E. (1998). Effects of active versus passive group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders. Journal Of Music Therapy, 35(1), 49-67.

Nöcker-Ribaupierre, M., & Wölfl, A. (2010). Music to counter violence: a preventative approach for working with adolescents in schools. Nordic Journal Of Music Therapy, 19(2), 151-161. doi:10.1080/08098131.2010.489997

Obiagaeri, E. R. (2018). Efficacy of rational emotive behavioural therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in reducing aggressive behavior among secondary school students in Abia State. Internasional Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education, 5(1), 77-82. arcjournals.org

Raine, A., Dodge, K., Loeber, R., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Lynam, D., Reynolds, C., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Liu, J. (2006). The reactive-proactive aggression questionnaire: Differential correlated of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescent boys. Aggressive Behavior, 32(2), 159-171. Doi:10.1002/ab/20115

Rea, C., MacDonald, P., & Caners, G. (2010). Listening to classical, pop, and metal music: An investigation of mood. Emporia State Reasearch Studies, 46(1), 1-3. academic.emporia.edu.

Rickson, D. J., & Watkins, W. G. (2003). Music Therapy to promote prosocial behaviors in aggressive adolescent boys - A pilot study. Journal Of Music Therapy, 40(4), 283-301. doi:10.1093/jmt/40.4.283

Santrock, J. W. (2012). Life-span development: Perkembangan masa-hidup (13th ed.) (N. I. Sallama, Ed.). Indonesia: Erlangga.

Sarwono, S. W. (2012). Pengantar psikologi umum (4th ed.) (E. A. Meinarno, Ed.). Jakarta: PT Rajagrafindo Persada.

Satiadarma, M. P. (2002). Terapi musik. Jakarta: Milenia Populer.

Scarpa, A., Haden, S. C., & Tanaka, A. (2010). Being hot-tempered: Autonomoc, emotional, and behavioral distinctions between childhood reactive and proactive aggression. Biological Psychology, 84(3), 488-498. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.11.006.

Sukhodolsky, D. G., Kassinove, H., & Gorman, B. S. (2004). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for anger in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Aggressive Violent Behavior, 9(247), 247-269. sciencedirect.com

Sukhodolsky, D. G., Smoth, S. D., McCauley, S. A., Ibrahim, K., & Piasecka, J. D. (2016). Behavioral interventions for anger, irritability, and aggression in children and adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 26(1), 58-64. Doi: 10.1089/cap.2015.0120

Thaut, M. H. (1989). The influence of music therapy interventions on self-rated changes in relaxation, affect, and thought in psychiatric prisoner-patients. Journal of Music Therapy, 26, 155-166.

Tonarelli, L. (2016). Bathing with music helps reduce aggression. Nurse Aide-VIP, 28(9), 12.

Yinger, O. S. (2017). Music therapy: Research and evidence-based practice. doi: 10.1016/c2016-0-01352-9

Yuanita, R. A., Jatnika, A., & Susiati, E. (1999). Pengembangan alat ukur TRF: Laporan penelitian. Inspektoral Jendral Departemen Koperasi, Indonesia.

Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Muara Ilmu Sosial, Humaniora, dan Seni
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.