SELF-EFFICACY SISWA SD YANG MENGHADAPI SOAL CERITA MATEMATIKA: DAMPAK PENGAJARAN STRATEGI METAKOGNITIF IDEA

Natalia W. Darmawan, Sri Tiatri, Heni Mularsih
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Abstract

Performa pemecahan soal cerita matematika pada siswa SD di Indonesia masih rendah. Salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan rendahnya performa pemecahan soal cerita matematika adalah self-efficacy rendah pada siswa. Untuk mengembangkan self-efficacy siswa diperlukan penguasaan strategi belajar yang efektif. Beberapa penelitian yang menguji keterkaitan antara strategi metakognitif dan pemecahan masalah matematika telah banyak dilakukan, namun di Indonesia menunjukkan hasil yang berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat pengaruh pengajaran strategi metakognitif IDEA terhadap peningkatan self-efficacy soal cerita matematika pada siswa kelas 5 SD. Strategi metakognitif IDEA merupakan metode pengajaran soal cerita matematika yang dikembangkan berdasarkan teori Polya (1973) terdiri dari empat langkah, yaitu memahami masalah, membuat rencana perhitungan, melakukan perhitungan, dan melakukan pengecekan kembali. Self-efficacy pemecahan soal cerita matematika merupakan suatu keyakinan individu atas kemampuannya dalam mengatur diri dan menyelesaikan tugas pemecahan soal cerita matematika. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas 5 SD X Jakarta Barat berjumlah 6 siswa. Teknik pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan purposive sampling. Pengukuran self-efficacy soal cerita matematika menggunakan kuesioner self-efficacy yang disusun berdasarkan teori Bandura (1997) meliputi dimensi level, generality, dan strength. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode kuantitatif, dengan desain penelitian quasi experiment, one group pretest-posttest. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji statistik paired sample T-test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan pada self-efficacy pemecahan soal cerita matematika sebelum dan sesudah pengajaran strategi metakognitif (t = -1.535, ρ > 0.05). Berdasarkan hasil analisis, disimpulkan bahwa tidak ada pengaruh pengajaran strategi metakognitif terhadap peningkatan self-efficacy soal cerita matematika pada siswa kelas 5 SD.   

 

Elementary school students in Indonesia still struggle to solve mathematical word problems. One factor that causes this is low self-efficacy among students. To develop self-efficacy, students need mastery of effective learning strategies. Several studies examining the link between metacognitive strategies and mathematical problem solving have been carried out, however in Indonesia they show varied results. This study aims to examine the effect of teaching IDEA metacognitive strategies on increasing self-efficacy of 5th grade students in doing mathematical word problems. IDEA metacognitive strategy is a method of teaching mathematical world problems developed based on Polya's (1973)  theory consisting of four steps, namely understanding the problem, making a calculation plan, doing the calculation, and re-checking. Self-efficacy in solving mathematical word problems is an individual's belief in his/her ability to organize themselves and complete the task of solving mathematical word problems. The samples in this study were six 5th grade students of SD X West Jakarta. The sampling technique is purposive sampling. Measurement of self-efficacy in solving mathematical word problems used a self-efficacy questionnaire that was compiled based on Bandura's (1997)  theory which includes levels, generality, and strength dimensions. The research method is quantitative, with a quasi-experimental research design, one group pretest-posttest. Data analysis was performed using paired sample T-test statistical test. The result shows that there is no significant differences in the self-efficacy in solving mathematical word problems before and after teaching metacognitive strategies (t = -1.535, ρ > 0.05). Based on the results of the analysis, it was concluded that teaching metacognitive strategies has no effect on increasing self-efficacy in solving math word problems among 5th grade students.   

 

Keywords

self-efficacy; pemecahan soal cerita matematika; pengajaran strategi metakognitif; solving mathematical word problems; teaching metacognitive strategy

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