PENGUKURAN KUALITAS HIDUP SEBAGAI INDIKATOR STATUS KESEHATAN KOMPREHENSIF PADA INDIVIDU LANJUT USIA

Marcella Erwina Rumawas
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Abstract

Indonesia mengalami transisi demografis menuju struktur penduduk tua yang tidak hanya berdampak pada bidang kesehatan, namun juga pada berbagai aspek kehidupan. Kompleksitas proses penuaan dan kerentanan lansia menderita beberapa penyakit kronik, menyebabkan konsep “sakit vs sembuh” maupun indikator angka kesakitan sulit mencerminkan status kesehatan dan keberhasilan program kesehatan lansia. Walaupun digunakan untuk mengevaluasi keberhasilan terapi pada pasien dengan penyakit kronis tertentu, namun penggunaan pengukuran kualitas hidup sebagai indikator status kesehatan komprehensif pada masyarakat lansia masih sangat terbatas.  Mini survei deskriptif potong lintang ini adalah studi percontohan, dilakukan untuk memberikan gambaran preliminari perbandingan hasil penilaian kualitas hidup dengan penilaian kesehatan secara umum, dan keterkaitan antar aspek-aspek kehidupan lansia.  Sebanyak 28 responden lansia di Jakarta Barat, direkrut dengan metode convenient, mengisi kuesioner kualitas hidup lansia secara daring.  Dari 28 responden, 57,1% menilai tingkat kualitas hidupnya baik (skor 4), rerata skor tertinggi pada aspek spiritual (81,9), sedangkan rerata skor terendah pada aspek kesehatan fisik (64,7).  Didapatkan kecenderungan hasil penilaian tingkat kualitas hidup lebih baik (skor lebih tinggi) daripada tingkat kesehatan secara umum. Aspek kesehatan fisik menunjukkan korelasi paling kuat dengan aspek kesehatan mental (r=0,84; p<0,001), dan diikuti dengan aspek lingkungan (r=0,75; p<0,001).  Pengukuran kualitas hidup diharapkan dapat memberikan pemahaman komprehensif tentang status kesehatan lansia.

 

Indonesia is undergoing a demographic transition towards an older population structure, which not only impacts on the health sector, but also on various aspects of life.  The complexity of the aging process and the vulnerability of the elderly to suffer from several chronic diseases, make the concept of "sick vs cured" and indicator of morbidity difficult to reflect the health status and the success of elderly’s health programs. Although it is used to evaluate the success of therapy in patients with certain chronic diseases, the use of quality of life as an indicator of comprehensive health status in the elderly community is still very limited. This cross-sectional descriptive mini survey was a pilot study, conducted to provide a preliminary description comparing the results between the quality of life and general health assessments, and the correlation between lives’s aspects of the elderly. A total of 28 elderly respondents in West Jakarta conveniently recruited, filled out an online quality of life questionnaire. Of the 28 respondents, 57.1% rated their quality of life as good (score 4), the spiritual aspect recevied the highest average score (81.9), whilst the physical health aspect received the lowest average score (64.7). There is a tendency for the quality of life level to be better (higher score) than the general health level.  Physical health aspects showed the strongest correlation with mental health aspects (r=0.84; p<0.001), followed by environmental aspects (r=0.75; p<0.001). Measuring the quality of life is expected to provide a comprehensive understanding of the elderly’s health status.

Keywords

Elderly; Quality Of Life; Health Status; Lansia; Kualitas Hidup; Status Kesehatan

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