KOMORBIDITAS GANGGUAN TIDUR PADA ANAK DENGAN GANGGUAN PEMUSATAN PERHATIAN DAN HIPERAKTIVTAS

Evi Evi, Tjhin Wiguna, Khamelia Malik
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Abstract

Gangguan Pemusatan Perhatian dan Hiperaktivitas (GPPH) adalah gangguan perkembangan yang ditandai dengan kesulitan dalam mempertahankan atensi, disorganisasi dan atau perilaku psikomotor yang hiperaktif. Patofisiologi dan etiologi GPPH sangat kompleks, bersifat multiaksial dan multifaktorial, melibatkan faktor genetik, lingkungan, berbagai perubahan pada struktur, fungsi dan biokimia dari otak. Sebagai konsekuensinya, GPPH umumnya tidak berdiri sendiri melainkan sering disertai oleh satu atau lebih kondisi komorbid di mana salah satu di antaranya adalah gangguan tidur. Gangguan tidur memang dapat terjadi pada setiap orang, akan tetapi prevalensi gangguan tidur pada GPPH kira-kira 5 kali lebih banyak dari pada tanpa GPPH. Hubungan antara gangguan tidur dan GPPH bersifat kompleks dan multidireksional. Gangguan tidur dapat merupakan gejala dari GPPH, dapat diperburuk oleh GPPH, atau sebaliknya membuat gejala seperti GPPH, dan menambah gejala GPPH bertambah berat.

 

Gangguan Pemusatan Perhatian dan Hiperaktivitas (GPPH) adalah gangguan perkembangan yang ditandai dengan kesulitan dalam mempertahankan atensi, disorganisasi dan atau perilaku psikomotor yang hiperaktif. Patofisiologi dan etiologi GPPH sangat kompleks, bersifat multiaksial dan multifaktorial, melibatkan faktor genetik, lingkungan, berbagai perubahan pada struktur, fungsi dan biokimia dari otak. Sebagai konsekuensinya, GPPH umumnya tidak berdiri sendiri melainkan sering disertai oleh satu atau lebih kondisi komorbid di mana salah satu di antaranya adalah gangguan tidur. Gangguan tidur memang dapat terjadi pada setiap orang, akan tetapi prevalensi gangguan tidur pada GPPH kira-kira 5 kali lebih banyak dari pada tanpa GPPH. Hubungan antara gangguan tidur dan GPPH bersifat kompleks dan multidireksional. Gangguan tidur dapat merupakan gejala dari GPPH, dapat diperburuk oleh GPPH, atau sebaliknya membuat gejala seperti GPPH, dan menambah gejala GPPH bertambah berat.

Keywords

Gangguan Pemusatan Perhatian dan Hiperaktivitas (GPPH); gangguan tidur; Sleep Disorder Breathing (SDB); Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS); Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD)

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