PROFIL CAPAIAN IMUNISASI DASAR ATAU LANJUTAN PADA BADUTA SEBELUM DAN SELAMA PANDEMI COVID-19

Wiyarni Pambudi, Sari M.D Nataprawira, Zita Atzmardina, Sylvia Regina
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Abstract

Perubahan global dari pandemi penyakit coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) dapat mengganggu layanan penyelamatan hidup yang kritis seperti imunisasi rutin, sehingga meningkatkan kerentanan populasi terhadap wabah Penyakit yang Dapat Dicegah Dengan Imunisasi (PD3I). Ketika kasus COVID-19 meningkat dan pemerintah menerapkan pembatasan sosial, kunjungan pasien rawat jalan menurun secara signifikan. Hal ini mengakibatkan penurunan angka imunisasi anak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil capaian imunisasi dasar dan imunisasi lanjutan sebelum dan selama pandemi COVID-19, profil capaian imunisasi rutin di 34 provinsi serta hubungannya dengan status zona risiko pandemi. Data yang dianalisis pada studi observasional deskriptif dengan desain potong lintang ini adalah laporan rutin pelayanan imunisasi Sub Direktorat Imunisasi, Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Kajian terhadap capaian imunisasi 34 provinsi menunjukkan terjadi penurunan praktik pelayanan imunisasi dasar sebesar -17,0% (p < 0,0005) dan imunisasi lanjutan -12,9% (p < 0,0005) dibandingkan sebelum masa pandemi. Uji statistik menyatakan profil capaian imunisasi dasar memiliki hubungan yang bermakna secara statistik (p < 0,05) terhadap peningkatan kasus di suatu wilayah, namun berkorelasi lemah berlawanan (-0,5 < r < -0,3). Penurunan cakupan imunisasi lanjutan yang terjadi selama pandemi COVID-19 berkorelasi sangat lemah berlawanan (r > -0,3) dan tidak memiliki hubungan yang bermakna secara statistik (p > 0,05) dengan zona risiko pandemi. Dalam situasi pandemi, petugas kesehatan dihadapkan pada tantangan tambahan untuk mempertahankan dan memperkuat imunisasi rutin seperti kondsi sebelum pandemi. Peningkatan upaya komunikasi mengenai pentingnya vaksinasi akan bermanfaat, karena efek pandemi COVID-19 telah menyoroti ancaman penyakit menular dan meningkatkan kesadaran akan praktik imunisasi rutin. 

 

The global progression of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may disrupt critical life-saving services such as routine immunization, thus increasing the susceptibility of population to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). As COVID-19 cases increased and government implemented stay-at-home orders, outpatient visits declined significantly. This condition may decrease the rates of childhood immunization. This study aims to determine the profile of basic immunization and follow-up immunization achievements before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, the profile of routine immunization outcomes in 34 provinces and their relationship to the pandemic risk zone status. The data analyzed in this descriptive observational study with a cross-sectional design were routine reports on immunization services at Sub Directorate of Immunization, MoH. Profile on immunization coverages showed a decrease in basic immunization service practices by -17.0% (p <0.0005) and advanced immunization -12.9% (p <0.0005) compared to before the pandemic period. Statistical test showed that the basic immunization achievement profile had a statistically significant relationship (p <0.05) with the increase in cases in a region, but had a weak correlation (-0.5 <r <-0.3). The decrease in advanced immunization had a very weak correlation (r> -0.3) and had no statistically significant relationship (p> 0.05) with an increase in COVID-19 cases. During pandemic situation, health providers are presented with the additional challenge of maintaining and strengthening routine vaccination as previously done before pandemic. Increasing communication efforts regarding the importance of vaccination will be worthwhile, as the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the threat of an infectious disease and has increased awareness of the routine immuization practices.

Keywords

Imunisasi Dasar/Lanjutan; Pandemi COVID-19; Routine Immunization

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References

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